- Pre 1900: Colonial conquest and resistance
- 1902-1910: Constructing the Union of South Africa: negotiations and contestations
- 1910-1924: African nationalism and working-class and popular protests
- 1924-1939: State policies and social protest
- 1939-1948: The Second World War and its impact
- 1948-1960: Apartheid and the limits of non-violent resistance
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1856 - 1913
1856 - 1910, Masters and Servants Acts:
These Acts, which had been passed between 1856 and 1904 in the four territories, remained in force after Union. They made it a criminal offence to breach the contract of employment. Desertion, insolence, drunkenness, negligence and strikes were also criminal offences. Theoretically these laws applied to all races, but the courts held that the laws were applicable only to unskilled work, which was performed mostly by Black people (Dugard 1978: 85; Horrell 1978: 6).
Repealed by s 51 of the Second General Law Amendment Act No 94 of 1974.
1911, Mines and Works Act No 12:
Permitted the granting of certificates of competency for a number of skilled mining occupations to Whites and Coloureds only.
Repealed by s 20 of the Mines and Works Amendment Act No 27 of 1956
19 June 1913, Black Land Act No 27:
Prohibited Blacks from owning or renting land outside designated reserves (approximately 7 per cent of land in the country). Commenced: 19 June 1913. Repealed by s 1 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.