Heritage ToursOld and New places in South Africa
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Emerging Nationalism and Socialist Resistance
- Pre 1900: Colonial conquest and resistance
- 1902-1910: Constructing the Union of South Africa: negotiations and contestations
- 1910-1924: African nationalism and working-class and popular protests
- 1924-1939: State policies and social protest
- 1939-1948: The Second World War and its impact
- 1948-1960: Apartheid and the limits of non-violent resistance
20th century organisations
political, civic, youth, & women's organisations involved in the liberation struggle
Lives of Courage
listing of those who died, were exiled, banished or imprisoned during the liberation struggle
Although Apartheid only ‘officially’ started in 1948, repression was rife in South Africa long before that date. This special project examines the Freedom Struggle from the beginning of the 20th century up until South Africa's first democratic election in April 1994.
This archive presents this history in two parts, namely; Emerging African Nationalism and Working-Class and Popular Resistance 1900-1950s, and The Armed Struggle and Popular Resistance 1960-1994 respectively. Please note that ‘periodizing’ history is subjective and in this case, reflects the nature of the highlighted theme, the shifting locus of power. In the first half of the twentieth century this shifts between the new state (Union of South Africa), the imperial interests (for example, the two world wars) and the protests of different social groups. In the post-Sharpeville phase, the locus of power is poised between the state and the resistance movement and is increasingly concentrated in the popular resistance movement.
In each section you will find a list of biographies, organization histories, resources and further reading lists, legislation listings, timelines and galleries. This is a growing archive and we will be adding new material whenever possible. If you would like to contribute to the archive please send us your material.