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United Nations and Apartheid

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1946 22 June    
The Government of India requested that the question of the treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa be included in the agenda of second part of the first session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.

The Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act ("Ghetto Act") had been enacted earlier in the month and the Indian community began a passive resistance campaign on 13 June under the leadership of Dr. Y.M. Dadoo and Dr. G.M. Naicker. Nearly 2,000 people courted imprisonment in the campaign in the next two years.

1946 24 October    
The General Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations did not support the request of the Union of South Africa that the Indian complaint be removed from the agenda on the grounds that the matter was essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of South Africa.

1946 26 October    
The General Assembly of the United Nations decided to include in its agenda an item entitled: "Treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa". It rejected South Africa's contention that the matter was within the domestic jurisdiction of South Africa and that the United Nations was not competent to consider the matter.

1946 31 October    
The General Assembly of the United Nations decided that the Indian complaint against South Africa should be considered jointly by the First and Sixth Committees.


1946 21 November - 30 November    
The Indian complaint against South Africa was considered in the Joint First and Sixth Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations.

A multi-racial delegation from South Africa, led by Dr. A.B. Xuma, President-General of the African National Congress, arrived in New York to follow the discussions at the United Nations, advise the Indian delegation, and lobby other delegations. It included Sorabjee Rustomjee, H.A. Naidoo and Senator H. Basner.

1946 7 December - 8 December    
Debate in the General Assembly of the United Nations on the Indian complaint against South Africa (plenary meetings 50-52).

1946 8 December    
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 44(I), expressing the opinion that the treatment of Indians in South Africa should be in conformity with the international obligations under the agreements concluded between the two Governments, and the relevant provisions of the United Nations Charter.

1947 November    
The General Assembly of the United Nations was unable to adopt any resolution on the Indian complaint for lack of a two-thirds majority. The vote was 31 in favour, 19 against and 6 abstentions.

1948 12 July    
India again requested consideration of the complaint against South Africa. It pointed out that the new Government in South Africa was committed to "apartheid" and the domination of all non-White peoples by the Europeans" and warned: "If the belief that there is to be one standard of treatment for the White races and another for the non-White continues to gain strength among the latter, the future for solidarity among the Members of the United Nations and, consequently, for world peace, will indeed be dark."

1949 14 May    
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 265 (III) inviting India, Pakistan and South Africa to enter into discussion at a round-table conference.

1949 August    
India proposed a round-table conference with South Africa and Pakistan. South Africa suggested a preliminary discussion by representatives.

1949 28 November    
India announced that a preliminary conference would be held on 6 February 1950 in Cape Town to discuss the procedure of the proposed round-table conference on the question of Indians in South Africa.

1950 February    
Preliminary conversations began in Cape Town by representatives from India, Pakistan and South Africa. 0n 19 February, they announced agreement to hold a round-table conference "to explore all possible ways and means of settling the Indian question in South Africa."

1950 June     India announced decision not to participate in the proposed round-table conference because of the introduction of the Group Areas Bill.

1950 2 December    
The General Assembly of the United Nations declared that "a policy of 'racial segregation' (apartheid) is necessarily based on doctrines of racial discrimination". [Resolution 395(V)]

1952 26 June    
A non-violent "Campaign of Defiance against Unjust Laws" was launched by the African National Congress and the South African Indian Congress, and began in Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth. Over 8,000 persons of all racial origins courted imprisonment in the campaign by contravening selected discriminatory laws and regulations.

1952 12 September    
Thirteen Asian-African Member States - Afghanistan, Burma, Philippines, Saudi Arabia and Yemen - requested that the General Assembly of the United Nations consider "the question of race conflict in South Africa resulting from the policies of apartheid of the Government of the Union of South Africa".

1952 17 October    
The General Assembly of the United Nations included item on apartheid in the agenda by a vote of 45 to 6, with 8 abstentions.

1952 5 December    
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 616(VII) establishing a three-member Commission to study the racial situation in South Africa (United Nations Commission on the Racial Situation in the Union of South Africa - UNCORS). The vote was 35 to 1, with 23 abstentions.

1952 21 December    
The General Assembly of the United Nations decided, at the suggestion of the President, that the commission be composed of Hernan Santa Cruz of Chile, Ralph Bunche of USA, and Jaime Torres Bodet of Mexico.

1953 30 March    
The General Assembly of the United Nations appointed Henri Laugier of France and Dantes Bellegarde of Haiti to replace Messrs. Bunche and Torres Bodet who were unable to serve on the commission.

1953 30 December    
The General Assembly of the United Nations rejected a South African draft resolution to decide, having regard to Article 2, paragraph 7 of the Charter, that it had no competence to adopt the draft resolution recommended by the Ad Hoc Political Committee. The vote was 42 to 8, with 10 abstentions.
Those voting in favour of the South African motion were Australia, Belgium, Colombia, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom.
Those abstaining were: Argentina, Canada, Dominican Republic, Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Turkey, USA and Venezuela.
Resolution 721 (VIII) was adopted by 38 votes to 15, with 7 abstentions.

1954 14 December    
General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 820 (IX) on apartheid by 35 votes to 16, with 9 abstentions.

1955      
The South African Government withdrew from membership in the UNESCO in protest against UNESCO's activities against racial discrimination.

1955 6 December    
General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 917 (X) on apartheid by 41 votes to 6, with 8 abstentions. A paragraph requesting UNCORS to continue its work was voted on by roll-call and rejected, having failed to receive a two-thirds majority: the vote was 33 to 17, with 9 abstentions. As a result, the agenda item had to be proposed annually.

1956 27 November    
South Africa's Minister for External Affairs, Eric Louw, announced during the general debate in the General Assembly of the United Nations that in the face of the continued interference by the General Assembly of the United Nations in South Africa's domestic affairs in violation of Article 2, paragraph 7 of the Charter, the Union of South Africa, while as yet continuing to be a Member of the United Nations, would in future maintain only token representations at the meetings of the General Assembly of the UN and at the Headquarters of the Organisation.

1957 30 January     The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 1016 (XI) on apartheid by 56 votes to 5, with 12 abstentions.

1957 26 November    
The General Assembly adopted resolution 1178 (XII) on apartheid by 59 votes to 6, with 14 abstentions.Australia, Belgium and UK were against retaining the item on the agenda. Several others - including Canada and USA - questioned the propriety or desirability of adopting new resolutions on the matter.

1958       South Africa resumed full participation in the UN, having noted a more conciliatory attitude taken by the Assembly during its 12th session in 1957.

1958 30 October    
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 1248 (XIII) on apartheid. The operative paragraphs were general and only one referred specifically to South Africa, expressing "regret and concern" that the South African Government "has not yet responded to appeals of the General Assembly that it reconsider governmental policies which impair the right of all racial groups to enjoy the same rights and fundamental freedoms".


1959 17 November    
General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 1375 (XIV) on apartheid. It was similar to the resolution of the previous year, except that it expressed "deep regret and concern".

1960 21 March    
Police shooting at peaceful demonstrators in Sharpeville against pass laws for Africans: 69 men, women and children were killed and about 200 wounded.

1960 25 March    
Representatives of 29 African and Asian members requested an urgent meeting of the Security Council to consider "the situation arising out of the large-scale killings of unarmed and peaceful demonstrators against racial discrimination and segregation in the Union of South Africa".

1960 30 March    
The Security Council began consideration of the situation in South Africa, under an agenda item entitled: "The situation arising out of the large-scale killings of unarmed and peaceful demonstrators against racial discrimination and segregation in the Union of South Africa".

1960 1 April    
The Security Council, in its first action on South Africa, adopted resolution 134 (1960) deploring the policies and actions of the South African Government which had given rise to a loss of life of so many Africans and led to international friction, and called upon that Government to abandon its policies of apartheid and racial discrimination. It requested the Secretary-General, in consultation with the South African Government, "to make such arrangements as would adequately help in upholding the purposes and principles of the [United Nations] Charter." The vote on the resolution was 9 in favour and 2 abstentions (France and the United Kingdom).


1960 19 April    
First interim report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold, pursuant to the Security Council resolution of 1 April.

1960 June - July    
Boycotts of South African goods were being implemented in many countries: labour organisations refused to service South African cargoes

1960 15 June - 24 June    
Second Conference of Independent African States, at Addis Ababa, called for sanctions against South Africa.

1960 11 October    
Second interim report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Security Council resolution of 1 April.

1961 23 January    
Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold, on implementation of Security Council resolution of 1 April 1960. He stated that in the course of his discussions with the Prime Minister of South Africa, "so far no mutually acceptable arrangement" had been found on racial policies in South Africa.

1961 March - April    
Debate on apartheid at the resumed 15th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. African and Asian delegations pressed for sanctions against South Africa.

The representative of UK said on 5 April that while the importance attached by UK to Article 2 (7) of the UN Charter remained undiminished, it regarded apartheid as being now so exceptional as to be sui generis, and his delegation felt able to consider proposals on the question of the merits.

The Special Political Committee recommended two draft resolutions: an African resolution calling for specific measures and another by 5 Asian countries asking all States to consider separate and collective action as was open to them. In the Plenary on 13 April, the key paragraph of the African draft was voted separately and received 42 votes in favour and 34 against, with 21 abstentions, and was not adopted. The sponsors then withdrew the resolution.

The Asian draft - which condemned apartheid a "reprehensible and repugnant to human dignity" - was adopted by 96 to 1, with 0 abstentions as resolution 1598 (XV). Only Portugal voted against. The United Kingdom voted for a resolution against apartheid for the first time. (India, sponsor of this resolution, voted in favour of both drafts).

1961 15 March    
Following strong opposition in the Conference of Commonwealth Prime Ministers, Dr. Verwoerd announced the withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth "in the interests of South Africa's honour and dignity".

1961
31 May
South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and proclaimed itself a Republic.

1961
29 June
The International Labour Organisation voted 163-O-89 in favour of a resolution calling for South Africa's withdrawal from the Organisation.

1961
11 October
The General Assembly decided - by 67 votes to 1, with 20 abstentions - to censure the Foreign Minister of South Africa for his offensive speech in the General Assembly. Only South Africa voted against.

1962
23 June
African and some other delegates walked out of the International Labour Conference in Geneva when delegates of the Government and employers of South Africa went to the rostrum to participate in the general debate on the Director-General's report.
In 1961, the conference had asked the Governing Body to forward a request to the South African government to withdraw from the ILO in view of its apartheid policy. The Government ignored the request and sent its three delegations to the present conference. The ILO Constitution had no provision for excluding a member.

1962
24 August
African delegations requested Secretary-General U Thant to help obtain the release of Nelson Mandela. In a statement, they condemned the arrest on 5 August and noted that he was held under the Sabotage Act, which carries a possible death penalty.

1962
6 November
The General Assembly requested Member States to take specific measures to bring about the abandonment of apartheid, including breaking of diplomatic, trade and transport relations. It also established a Special Committee to follow developments and report to the General Assembly and the Security Council. [Resolution 1761(XII)]

[From its session in 1962, the General Assembly combined the items on the treatment of Indians in South Africa and on apartheid into one item: "Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa.]

1963
2 April
First meeting of the Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa (later renamed "Special Committee against Apartheid").

1963
7 August
The Security Council adopted resolution 181 calling upon all States to cease the sale and shipment of arms, ammunition and military vehicles to South Africa.

1963
October
Prominent leaders of the ANC and allied organisations charged in the "Rivonia trial". (Many of them had been arrested on the Rivonia farm).

1963 - 1964
October - June
The Rivonia Trial, which ended in Mandela, Mbeki, Sisulu, Goldberg, Kathrada, Mhlaba, Mlangeni and Motsoaledi being sentenced to life imprisonment.

1963
11 October
The General Assembly adopted resolution 1881(XVIII) requesting the Government of South Africa to abandon the "Rivonia trial" of Nelson Mandela and other leaders, and forthwith to grant unconditional release to all political prisoners and to all persons imprisoned, interned or subjected to other restrictions for having opposed the policy of apartheid. The vote was 106 to 1, with only South Africa voting against.
(This date was subsequently proclaimed the Day of Solidarity with South African Political Prisoners.)

1963 4 December    
The Security Council, in resolution 182(1963) called upon all States "to cease forthwith the sale and shipment of equipment and materials for the manufacture and maintenance of arms and ammunition in South Africa". It requested the Secretary-General to establish a small group of experts to examine methods of resolving the situation in South Africa "through full, peaceful and orderly application of human rights and fundamental freedoms to all inhabitants of the territory as a whole, regardless of race, colour or creed, and to consider what part the United Nations might play in the achievement of this goal."

1963 16 December    
The General Assembly appealed for assistance to families of persons persecuted by the South African Government for their opposition to apartheid. [Resolution 1978(XVIII)]

1964 14 March    
The South African Government announced withdrawal from the International Labour Organisation.

1964 20 April    
The Group of Experts on South Africa presented its report to the Secretary-General, recommending that "all the people of South Africa should be brought into consultation and should thus be enabled to decide the future of their country at the national level." The Group was set up in pursuance of the Security Council resolution of 4 December 1963, with Mrs. Alva Myrdal (Sweden) as Chairman. Sir Hugh Foot (United Kingdom) was Rapporteur.

1964 9 June    
The Security Council - in resolution 190 - urged the South African Government to end the Rivonia Trial and grant an amnesty to all persons imprisoned or restricted for having opposed the policy of apartheid.

1964 12 June    
Nelson Mandela and others sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia trial.

1964 16 June    
The Rt. Rev. Joost de Blank presented a petition to the Secretary-General, on behalf of the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners (sponsored by the Anti-Apartheid Movement, London). The petition was signed by 91,691 persons in 28 countries. The World Campaign informed the Secretary-General that the demand for the release of South African political prisoners had been supported by organisations with a membership of over 258 million.

1964 6 November     Vuyisile Mini, Zinakile Mkaba and Wilson Khayinga, three prominent trade union leaders from the Eastern Cape, executed.

1965 9 November    
Establishment by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Programme for the Education and Training Abroad of South Africans.

1965 15 December    
The General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to establish a United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa to provide humanitarian assistance to persons persecuted under discriminatory and repressive legislation in South Africa and to their dependants.


1966 23 August - 4 August    
International Seminar on Apartheid, Brasilia, organised by the UN Division of Human Rights, the Special Committee against Apartheid and the Government of Brazil - the first of scores of conferences and seminars on apartheid organised or co-sponsored by the United Nations.

1966 26 October    
The General Assembly decided - in resolution 2142A (XXI) to proclaim 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Many delegations had proposed that date as it was the anniversary of the Sharpeville massacre of 1960.

1967 6 March    
The Commission on Human Rights deplored the actions of the South African Government as "contrary to international law and international morality".

1968 2 December    
The General Assembly requested all States and organisations "to suspend cultural, educational, sporting and other exchanges with the racist regime and with organisations or institutions in South Africa which practice apartheid.

1969 16 April    
The Fifth Summit Conference of East and Central African States in Lusaka adopted a Manifesto on Southern Africa.

1969 20 November    
The General Assembly - in resolution 2505 (XXIV) - welcomed the Lusaka Manifesto on Southern Africa and recommended it to the attention of all States and peoples.

1970 23 July    
Security Council adopted resolution 282 (1970) calling on States to take a series of measures to strengthen the arms embargo against South Africa. The vote was 12 in favour and 3 abstentions (France, UK, USA).

1970 24 October    
In a Declaration on the 25th anniversary of the United Nations, the General Assembly described apartheid as "a crime against the conscience and dignity of mankind". (Resolution 2627 (XXV))

1970 13 November    
After a challenge of the credentials of the South African delegation by many Member States, the General Assembly approved the report of the Credentials Committee "except with regard to the credentials of the representatives of the Government of South Africa". [(Resolution 2636 (XXV)]

1971 29 November     The General Assembly adopted resolution 2775 D (XXVI) calling for a boycott of sports teams selected in violation of the Olympic principle of non-discrimination. It also condemned the establishment of bantustans and forced removals of African people.

1972 4 February    
The Security Council, meeting in Addis Ababa, adopted resolution 311 (1972) condemning apartheid; recognising the legitimacy of the struggle of the oppressed people of South Africa; calling upon South Africa to release all those imprisoned as a result of apartheid; calling upon all States to observe strictly the arms embargo against South Africa; urging governments and individuals to contribute to UN funds to assist victims of apartheid; and commending organisations and individuals assisting in the education and training of South Africans. The vote was 14 in favour and one abstention (France).

1972 15 November    
In resolution 2923 E (XXVII), the General Assembly declared that "the United Nations has a vital interest in securing the speedy elimination of apartheid".

1973 9 April - 14 April    
International Conference of Experts for Support of Victims of Colonialism and Apartheid in Southern Africa, Oslo.

1973 15 June - 16 June    
International Trade Union Conference against Apartheid - organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body, in cooperation with the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, at Palais des Nations, Geneva.


1973 30 November    
International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid approved by the General Assembly [Resolution 3068(XXVIII)].

1973 14 December    
The General Assembly declared that the South African regime has "no right to represent the people of South Africa" and that the liberation movements recognised by the OAU are "the authentic representatives of the overwhelming majority of the South African people". [Resolution 3151 G (XXVIII)]

1974 30 September    
The General Assembly decided - by 98 votes to 23, with 14 abstentions - not to accept the credentials of the representatives of South Africa.
At the same meeting, the Assembly adopted - by 125 votes to 1, with 9 abstentions - a resolution calling upon the Security Council "to review the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa in the light of the constant violation by South Africa of the principles of the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." [Resolution 3207 (XXIX)]

1974 18 October - 30 October     The Security Council considered the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa, and received a proposal to recommend to the General Assembly the immediate expulsion of South Africa from the United Nations in compliance with Article 6 of the Charter. The proposal received 10 votes in favour, but was not adopted because of the negative votes of three permanent members - France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

1974 12 November    
Asked for an interpretation of the decision not to accept the credentials of the South African delegation, the President of the General Assembly, Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria) said that the consistency with which the Assembly had refused to accept the credentials of the South African delegation was tantamount to saying in explicit terms that the General Assembly refused to allow the South African delegation to participate in its work. The President' ruling was challenged and upheld by a vote of 91 to 22, with 19 abstentions.


1974 16 December    
The General Assembly, in resolution 3324 E (XXIX) recommended that "the South African regime should be totally excluded from participation in all international organisations and conferences under the auspices of the United Nations so long as it continues to practice apartheid and fails to abide by United Nations resolutions concerning Namibia and Southern Rhodesia."

1975 18 November    
General Assembly adopted resolution 3411 C (XXX) proclaiming "that the United Nations and the international community have a special responsibility towards the oppressed people of South Africa and their liberation movements, and towards those imprisoned, restricted or exiled for their struggle against apartheid."

1976 1 January     The Centre against Apartheid was established in the United Nations Secretariat, with E. S. Reddy, Chief of Section for African Affairs, as director.

1976 16 June     Police fired at a demonstration in Soweto, Johannesburg, of students protesting against "Bantu education" and the imposition of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction. During that firing and in the ensuing period of nation-wide resistance by students, over a thousand pupils were killed and many more injured.


1976 18 July     The International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid came into force.

1976 26 October    
South Africa proclaimed the "independence" of one of the bantustans, the Transkei. On the same day the General Assembly rejected the declaration of independence as invalid, and called upon all governments to deny any form of recognition to Transkei or other bantustans.

1976 9 November    
The General Assembly adopted a comprehensive "programme of action against apartheid" by Governments, specialised agencies and other intergovernmental organisations, as well as trade unions, churches, anti-apartheid and solidarity movements and other non-governmental organisations.

It established an Ad Hoc Committee to prepare a declaration on apartheid in sports and an international convention against apartheid in sports.

1977 10 June - 11 June    
Second International Trade Union Conference for Action against Apartheid, Palais des Nations, Geneva, organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body in cooperation with the UN Special Committee against Apartheid.


1977 22 August - 26 August    
World Conference for Action against Apartheid, Lagos, organised by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organisation of African Unity and the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

1977 4 November    
Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 418 (1977) imposing mandatory arms embargo against South Africa.

1977 14 December    
International Declaration against Apartheid in Sports proclaimed by the General Assembly [resolution 32/105M)].

1978 - 1979 21 March - 20 March    
International Anti-Apartheid Year [proclaimed by the General Assembly in resolution 32/105B of 14 December 1977].

1978 14 August - 25 August    
World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, Geneva.

1978 11 October    
At a special meeting of the General Assembly, the United Nations gave awards to the following seven persons in recognition of their contribution, in cooperation with the United Nations, to the international campaign against apartheid:
The Reverend Canon L. John Collins (United Kingdom)
Michael Manley (Jamaica)
The late General Murtala Mohamed (Nigeria)
The late Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)
The late Jawaharlal Nehru (India)
Olof Palme (Sweden)
The late Paul Robeson (United States of America)

1979 28 March    
The World Campaign against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa was launched in London, with the support of the UN Special Committee against Apartheid. Several Heads of State and Government were its patrons and Abdul S. Minty its Director.

1979 26 October    
The General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to conduct an investigation into reports concerning a nuclear explosion by South Africa in the area of the Indian Ocean and the South Atlantic on 22 September.


1979 5 December    
South Africa was expelled from the annual General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, meeting in New Delhi.

1980 March    
Following the Rhodesian elections, the Sunday Post, Johannesburg, launched a campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela; it received wide support in the country.

1980 1 April    
A summit meeting of nine southern African countries in Lusaka decided to form the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to promote regional development and lessen dependence on South Africa.

1980 13 June    
Security Council adopted resolution 473 (1980), following police violence against a series of demonstrations by students and other groups in South Africa, strongly condemning the South African regime for further aggravating the situation. It called on that regime to end violence against the African people, and take a series of measures to eliminate apartheid and grant equal rights to all South Africans. It urgently called for "the release of all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela and all other black leaders with whom the regime must deal in any meaningful discussion of the future of the country."

1981 15 May    
First register of sports contacts with South Africa published by the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1981 20 May - 27 May    
International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa organised by the United Nations, in cooperation with the OAU, at UNESCO House, Paris.

1981 18 June    
ILO General Conference in Geneva condemned apartheid as degrading, criminal and inhuman, and decided to give ILO assistance to South African liberation movements. It set up a permanent conference committee to monitor South Africa's racial policies and approved ILO technical assistance to liberation movements through a voluntary fund.

1981 9 August    
International Day of Solidarity with the Struggle of Women of South Africa and Namibia was observed for the first time, on the 25th anniversary of the demonstration of South African women against pass laws.


1981 10 December    
The Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid was established in Paris with the support of the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1982      
International Year of Mobilisation for Sanctions against South Africa [proclaimed by the General Assembly in resolution 36/172B of 17 December 1981].

1982 21 March    
Declaration by about 1,500 Mayors calling for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African political prisoners published by the Special Committee against Apartheid. (The Declaration was initiated by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, the Right Honourable Mr. David Kelly, with the support of the Special Committee.


1982 24 May - 26 May    
Asian Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Manila, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of the Philippines.

1982 5 November    
On the 20th anniversary of the General Assembly resolution on sanctions against South Africa, the United Nations presented awards, for outstanding contribution to the international movement for sanctions against South Africa, to:
the late President Houari Boumediene (Algeria)
Romesh Chandra (India)
Madame Jean Martin-Cisse (Guinea)
The Most Reverend Trevor Huddleston, C.R. (United Kingdom)
The late Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (United States of America)
Jan Nico Scholten (Netherlands)


1983 21 March    
Publication of declaration for the release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African Political Prisoners signed by over 4,000 public leaders. The declaration was initiated by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston in cooperation with the Special Committee against Apartheid

1983 10 June - 11 June    
International Conference of Trade Unions on Sanctions and other Actions against the Apartheid Regime in South Africa, Palais des Nations, Geneva, organised by the Workers' Group of the ILO Governing Body and the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, in cooperation with the United Nations Council for Namibia, the OAU and the Organisation of African Trade Union Unity.

1983 16 September - 18 September    
Latin American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, Caracas, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of Venezuela.

1983 26 October    
The Special Committee against Apartheid published the first Register of Entertainers, Actors and Others who have Performed in South Africa.

1983 22 November    
Opening of the Art Contre/Against Apartheid exhibit at the Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plastique, Paris, sponsored by the Committee of Artists of the World against Apartheid, in cooperation with the Special Committee against Apartheid.


1983 5 December    
The General Assembly adopted a new programme of action against apartheid.

1984 18 June - 21 June    
North American Regional Conference for Action against Apartheid, United Nations Headquarters, New York, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid.

1984 7 August - 9 August    
Conference of Arab Solidarity with the Struggle for Liberation in Southern Africa, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid, in cooperation with the League of Arab States.

1984 17 August    
The Security Council rejected and declared null and void the new racist constitution of South Africa. It urged governments and organisations not to accord recognition to the "elections" under that constitution. (Resolution 554)

1985 7 May - 10 May    
International Conference on Women and Children under Apartheid, Arusha, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with OAU and the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania.


1985 16 May - 18 May    
International Conference on Sports Boycott against South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Supreme Council on Sports in Africa and the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee.

1985 26 July    
The Security Council urged Member States to adopt a wide range of economic measures against South Africa. The resolution was, however, not binding on Member States. [resolution 569]

1985 10 December    
The General Assembly adopted and opened for signature the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports.


1986 16 June - 20 June    
World Conference on Sanctions against Racist South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the United Nations in cooperation with OAU and the Movement of Non-aligned Countries.

1987 16 April    
The Security Council called upon South African authorities to revoke the decree of 10 April prohibiting protests against detention without trial.


1987 31 July - 3 August    
International Student Conference in Solidarity with the Struggle of the Students of Southern Africa, London.

1987 5 November - 7 November    
International Conference against Apartheid Sport, Harare, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with the Government of Zimbabwe, the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa, the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa, the Union of African Sports Confederations, SAN-ROC and the Zimbabwe National Olympic Committee.

1988 8 March    
Britain and the United States vetoed a draft resolution in the United Nations Security Council, following the banning of organisations in South Africa, for selective mandatory sanctions (based largely on measures adopted by the EEC).

1988 3 April    
The International Convention against Apartheid in Sports entered into force.


1988 6 May    
An ILO tripartite conference on action against apartheid, held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 3-6 May, updated a declaration and a plan of action to help end apartheid and bring independence to Namibia that included sanctions and assistance to the front-line and neighbouring States. The conference was attended by representatives of governments, employers and workers appointed by the ILO's governing body, by similar tripartite delegations from the frontline and other southern African states, and by other governments, international organisations such as the UN and the OAU, and national liberation movements.


1988 26 October    
The regime held nation-wide multiracial segregated municipal elections, the first time that it held elections on the same day for all racial population groups, even separately. The black majority followed the call of anti-apartheid forces and largely boycotted the elections, with only an estimated 14 per cent of "eligible" black voters participating, some 435,000 of 3.1 million out of a black population of 28 million.

The UN General Assembly the same day overwhelmingly rejected the elections as a manoeuvre to further entrench white minority rule and apartheid.

1989 16 January    
The Security Council, in response to the 22 December signing by Angola, Cuba and South Africa of a treaty for a settlement in south western Africa, adopted two resolutions on the question. In the first, the Council expressed support for the treaty, called upon all parties concerned, as well as all Member States, to cooperate in its implementation, and requested the Secretary-General to keep the Council informed on the implementation of the resolution. In the second, the Council decided that implementation of the plan contained in its resolution 435 (1978) for the independence of Namibia would begin on 1 April 1989, and requested the Secretary-General to prepare a report that would include possible cost-saving measures for putting it into effect.

1989 21 August    
The Assembly of Heads of State of OAU, meeting in Harare, adopted a declaration, suggested by ANC, on South Africa recognising that possibilities existed for a resolution of South Africa's problems by negotiation. (The declaration was subsequently endorsed by a summit meeting of non-aligned countries).


1989 14 December    
The General Assembly, at its sixteenth Special Session, adopted by consensus the "Declaration on Apartheid and its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa," calling for negotiations to end apartheid and establish a non-racial democracy. It laid down steps needed to create a climate conducive to negotiations, modalities of negotiations and principles for a new constitution. [Resolution A/RES/S-16/1].

1990 2 February    
President F. W. de Klerk made a speech at the opening of Parliament, announcing among other measures, the lifting of a 30-year ban on the ANC, the PAC and other anti-apartheid organisations, the suspension of the death sentence until further review, the release of some political prisoners and the partial lifting of restrictions on the media and on some detainees.

1990 20 March    
Independence of Namibia.

1990 9 June - 19 June    
A United Nations team, led by Mr. Abdulrahim A. Farah, Under-Secretary-General, visited South Africa to meet representatives of the Government, political parties and organisations to gather factual information on recent measures taken and proposals made for bringing about an end to the apartheid system. [The text of its report was annexed to the first report of the Secretary-General on progress made in the implementation of the Declaration on Apartheid and its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa, A/44/960.]


1990 19 June    
Mr. Farah stressed, at a press conference in Pretoria, the need for a series of confidence-building measures that could reduce the political violence and increase the level of trust and understanding among all parties and between the people and the Government.


1990 22 June    
Nelson Mandela addressed the Special Committee against Apartheid in New York, saying that nothing which had happened in South Africa called for a revision of the position that the Organisation had taken in its struggle against apartheid. He urged the United Nations to do everything in its power to maintain the consensus it had achieved when it adopted the Declaration on Apartheid in December 1989.

1990 24 July    
The Special Committee against Apartheid issued a statement concerning the Report of the Secretary-General on the Progress made in the Implementation of the Declaration on Apartheid and Its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa. It agreed with the Secretary-General's observation that although the process of change in South Africa had started, it was still at a preliminary stage. The Secretary-General introduced the report at a resumed session of the General Assembly held on 20 July. The General Assembly decided to hold a full discussion of the report from 12-14 September 1990.


1990 31 August    
The Special Committee against Apartheid issued a statement expressing deep concern at the deterioration of the situation in South Africa, the continued detention of Mac Maharaj and the arrest of leaders of COSATU. It indicated that "it considered it imperative that the South African authorities adopted effective measures to ensure the impartiality of the police in this situation". It also made "an urgent appeal to the parties concerned to seek a mechanism that will stop this senseless violence and will enhance the possibility of a future national reconciliation.

1990 13 December    
The General Assembly concluded three days of debate on Apartheid. Most Member States welcomed the positive developments that had taken place in that country but contended that the South African authorities had failed to meet the conditions conducive to negotiations set forth in the Declaration on Apartheid.

1991 21 March    
Foreign Minister Roelf Botha announced that South Africa had agreed that the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) would assist with the process of the return to South Africa of political exiles.

1991 8 May    
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) asked Pretoria to clarify its position on amnesty, as well as on any other obstacles that could prevent the repatriation process of refugees and political exiles.

1991 12 May    
The Second International Symposium on Cultural and Academic Links with South Africa, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid took place in Los Angeles. The Symposium reaffirmed the need for the cultural boycott together with "appropriate assistance to the anti-apartheid structures and to the disadvantaged sectors of the society". Academic and cultural activities having the intent and effect of opposing apartheid should be encouraged.


1991 7 June    
The Special Committee against Apartheid issued an interim report on developments in South Africa covering the first half of 1991. Noting the "limited progress achieved in removing the obstacles to negotiations" and the pervasive violence affecting the country, the report said that "the prospects for a speedy end to apartheid and the establishment of a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa appeared to be less promising now than a year ago.


1991 15 June    
The Association of West European Parliamentarians for Action against Apartheid, with the support of the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, organised an international conference in Prague (Czechoslovakia). The conference focused on "Eastern Europe and Southern Africa: Supporting Democracy and Development".

1991 25 June - 27 June    
International Conference on the Educational Needs of the Victims of Apartheid in South Africa, UNESCO House, Paris, organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid and UNESCO, in cooperation with the Advisory Committee of the United Nations Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa. Participants included South African experts on education, representatives of donor countries, non- governmental organisations, specialised agencies and the national liberation movements.
The Paris Statement adopted by the Conference called on Pretoria to address urgently the education crisis in South Africa by taking appropriate political, legal, financial and other measures. It also called on the international community to assist towards that end.

1991 10 July    
South Africa signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, thus permitting the inspection of all its nuclear facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

United States President George Bush signed an executive order terminating the sanctions against South Africa based on the determination that the South African authorities had met all five conditions set forth in the US Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. However, local and state sanctions remained, as well as the ban on arms and on support for International Monetary Fund loans to South Africa. President Bush also announced that assistance to black South Africans would be doubled from its current level of $40 million. The Special Committee against Apartheid, ANC, PAC and the Organisation of African Unity, as well as various United States organisations criticised the lifting of sanctions as premature.

1991 16 August    
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the South African Government initialled a Memorandum of Understanding on the voluntary repatriation and reintegration of an estimated 40,000 South African returnees. The agreement provided for a comprehensive amnesty for all political offences, a mechanism allowing the UNHCR to make representations on behalf of persons not granted amnesty, the establishment of an UNHCR presence in South Africa and complete freedom of movement for returnees within South Africa.

1991 4 September    
In his second progress report on the implementation of the United Nations 1989 Declaration on Apartheid, the Secretary-General found that "over the last 12 months the process towards the end of apartheid in South Africa, although halting, has remained on course".

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and South Africa signed Memorandum of Understanding concerning amnesty for South African refugees and political exiles.


1991 16 September    
Safeguards Agreement between IAEA and South Africa: South Africa signed an agreement allowing the inspection of its nuclear facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

1991 5 November    
At the end of a two-day meeting of consultations, held in Geneva, by the Special Committee against Apartheid with representatives of non-governmental organisations and anti-apartheid movements, participants adopted a statement of action in which they agreed to pursue a two-track policy of pressure on the South African authorities and assistance to democratic organisations in South Africa.

1991 13 December    
The General Assembly adopted seven resolutions, three of them by consensus, on the "Policies of Apartheid of the Government of South Africa". It called upon the international community to resume academic, scientific and cultural links with democratic anti-apartheid organisations and sport links with unified non-racial sporting organisations, as well as to review existing restrictive measures as warranted by positive developments.

1991 17 December    
The Secretary-General announced that Mrs. Sadako Ogata, High Commissioner for Refugees, and Professor Ibrahim Gambari, Chairman of the Special Committee against Apartheid, would lead the United Nations observer delegation to CODESA. Mr. Sotirios Mousouris, Assistant Secretary-General for the Centre against Apartheid, would be the third member of the delegation.
In addition to the United Nations, the Organisation of African Unity, the Movement of Non-Aligned countries, the Commonwealth and the European Community were also observers at CODESA. In a joint statement on 21 December, they said that "the broad objectives expressed in the Declaration of Intent (signed the previous day by participants in CODESA committing themselves "to bring about an undivided South Africa free from apartheid") are a most constructive and auspicious beginning for CODESA and give promise of attainment of true democracy for South Africa".


1992 15 May    
The second plenary session of CODESA (CODESA II) was convened in Johannesburg.

The delegation sent by the Secretary-General to attend the session as an observer was led by Chinmaya Rajaninath Gharekhan, Permanent Representative of India, and included Hisham Omayad, Director, Department of Political Affairs, and Mr. Bwakira, Director, Regional Bureau for Africa, Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

1992 24 May    
A three-day Seminar on the Future Role of the United Nations in Helping Address South Africa's Socio-economic Problems was held in Windhoek (Namibia) by the Special Committee against Apartheid and the Centre against Apartheid. Participants concurred that the apartheid system had left a deeply damaging socio-economic legacy, and that the critical situation faced by large segments of the population, particularly in the areas of education, health, employment and housing, needed to be urgently redressed.

1992 21 June    
ANC President Nelson Mandela announced that he was suspending all talks with the Government in the wake of the killings in Boipatong on 17 June when more than 40 were killed and scores injured. He requested the UN Secretary-General to call a special meeting of the Security Council to discuss the killings.

1992 23 June    
The ANC and PAC asked the ministerial council of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), meeting in Dakar, to call for an urgent meeting of the UN Security Council to examine the violence.


1992
27 June
While in Nigeria, Secretary-General Boutros-Boutros Ghali met with South African Foreign Minister Roelof Botha to discuss the deteriorating situation in South Africa and the constructive role the UN could play in reviving CODESA. The Secretary-General also met the Chairman of the IFP, who handed him a message from Chief Gatsha Buthelezi.

1992
28 June
The Council of Ministers of the OAU issued a resolution calling for an urgent meeting of the Security Council to examine the issue of violence and to take action to put an end to it.

1992
30 June
President Nelson Mandela met in Dakar with Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. They discussed the possible involvement of the international community in investigating violence in South Africa and, in particular, the convening of the Security Council on this issue. PAC President Clarence Makwetu also met with the Secretary-General.


1992
14 July
An International Hearing on Political Violence in South Africa, which was co-sponsored by the Special Committee against Apartheid and organised by the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, was held in London from 14 to 15 July 1992. Discussions focused on the causes and impact of violence, as well as measures to curb it.
The Hearing found that the primary responsibility for the ongoing violence lay with the South African Government "since it failed to take effective measures to end it".


1992
15 July
At the request of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), the Security Council convened on 15 to 16 July to examine the issue of violence in South Africa and take appropriate action to end it. Statements were made by forty-eight Member States as well as ANC President Nelson Mandela, PAC President Clarence Makwetu and South Africa Foreign Minister Roelof "Pik" Botha. The Council also heard nine representatives from other political parties who spoke in their personal capacity.

1992
16 July
The Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 765(1992). Pursuant to that resolution, the Secretary-General appointed a Special Representative, Mr. Cyrus Vance, to recommend measures to assist in bringing an effective end to the violence and in creating conditions for negotiations to resume.


1992
21 July - 31 July
Cyrus Vance, Special Representative of the Secretary-General, visited South Africa for talks with a broad array of political, religious, business and labour leaders.


1992
30 July
Nelson Mandela requested the United Nations to send observers during the ANC demonstrations scheduled for the following week.


1992 31 July    
The Secretary-General announced, after consultation with the South African Government and others, that he would send a small group of UN officials from the Department of Political Affairs.

Seven UN observers joined three UN staff members who were already in South Africa with Special Representative Cyrus Vance. They were immediately deployed in various provinces of the country to monitor events during the week of mass action.

1992 7 August    
The Secretary-General submitted a report to the Security Council (S/24389) based on the findings of Cyrus Vance. He recommended that the United Nations make available some observers to further the purposes of the National Peace Accord.

1992 8 August    
Justice Richard Goldstone said that his Commission was ready to carry out a full-scale inquiry into the security forces and political armies, in response to a recommendation made in the UN Secretary-General's report.

1992 13 August    
Foreign Minister Roelof (Pik) Botha said that the South African Government (SAG) had accepted "in principle" the report of the Secretary-General. It had agreed, with qualifications, to investigations into the police and army.


1992 17 August    
The Security Council approved the Secretary-General's report (S/24389), and authorised the stationing of UN observers in South Africa to work closely with the National Peace Secretariat to address the areas of concern noted in the report. The Secretary-General was to decide how many observers should be sent. The Council also invited the deployment of observers from the OAU, the Commonwealth and the European Union. [Resolution 772(1992)]

1992 8 September    
A two-day follow-up conference on Educational Assistance to disadvantaged South Africans was organised in New York by the United Nations Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa. The Conference focused attention on the requirements for educational assistance to Black South Africans during the transition period.

1992 16 September - 26 September    
Virendra Dayal, special envoy of the Secretary-General, visited South Africa.

1992 23 September    
Ms. Angela King, head of the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA), arrived in Johannesburg with six observers, bringing the total number of United Nations observers in the country to 20. The full contingent of 50 observers was expected to be deployed in October.

The United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa was established to assist the parties in South Africa in their efforts to put an end to violence.

1992 12 October    
The Special Committee against Apartheid held a solemn meeting in observance of the International Day of Solidarity with South African Political Prisoners. The meeting was followed by a round table discussion on "The Role of Law Enforcement and Law Enforcement Officials During the Transition Period and After".

1992 28 October    
The Commission against Apartheid in Sports met from 28 to 30 October in New York with representatives of the liberation movements, South African non-racial sports organisations, World Boxing Council and the International Olympic Committee, to review developments on apartheid in sports.


1992 22 November - 9 December    
Tom Vraalsen, special envoy of the Secretary-General, visited South Africa.


1992 30 November    
The Special Committee against Apartheid held two-day consultations with 56 participants from non-governmental organisations and anti-apartheid movements in Geneva, to review developments in South Africa and assess the present and future role of these organisations.

1992 1 December    
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) joined the offices of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in South Africa to assist in the reintegration of returnees, particularly women and children.


1992 22 December    
The Secretary-General submitted a report to the Security Council on the efforts to establish peace and to promote multi-party negotiations in South Africa.

1993 1 March - 10 March    
A delegation of the Special Committee against Apartheid visited South Africa. The mission, which established contact and held broad-based consultations with high-ranking representatives of all the major parties in the political process, was led by the Committee Chairman, Prof. Ibrahim Gambari (Nigeria).

1993 24 March    
In a speech to Parliament, President F. W. de Klerk disclosed that the South African Government had been engaged in a 15-year clandestine nuclear weapons programme leading to the production of six crude atomic bombs and had been at work on a seventh when it decided to dismantle its nuclear arsenal in 1989. The programme had begun in 1974 because of the Government's sense of isolation and fear of communism in the region. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) welcomed the disclosure and declared that it intended to inspect the sites involved and review records.


1993 1 April    
Representatives from 26 South African political parties and organisations resumed multiparty negotiations marking the start of serious deliberations on the transition since the collapse of CODESA.

The National Coordinating Committee for the Repatriation of South African Exiles (NCCR) was dissolved due to fraud and corruption amounting to substantial amounts of money. South African Council of Churches Secretary-General Dr. Frank Chikane said the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) would take over the reception of exiles in South Africa. He added that a criminal investigation and a commission of inquiry had been instituted to examine the disappearance of the money.


1993 13 May    
The South African Government granted diplomatic immunity and privileges to about 100 UN, Commonwealth, European Community and OAU observers through a proclamation in the Government Gazette.


1993 24 May    
World Bank Vice President, Edward Jaycox, announced that the Bank had $1 billion worth of development projects in the pipeline for South Africa. The projects, which are aimed to improve health, housing and education for South Africa's poor Blacks, would be implemented once a non-racial transitional government was in place.

1993 24 September    
Mr. Mandela, in an address to the Special Committee against Apartheid, called on the international community to lift all economic sanctions against South Africa.


1993 8 October    
The General Assembly requested States to terminate prohibition or restriction on economic relations with South Africa immediately, and to terminate the oil embargo against South Africa when the Transitional Executive Council in South Africa became operational. [Resolution 48/1].

1993 6 December    
Transitional Executive Council (TEC) began its work.
At its first session, the TEC adopted a resolution of the Multi-party Negotiating Council requesting that the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the European Community, the Organisation of African Unity and individual governments provide a sufficient number of international observers to monitor the electoral process. The TEC also appealed to the United Nations to coordinate all international observers and to ensure that their deployment was effectively coordinated through close cooperation with the Independent Electoral Commission.


1993 9 December    
The UN Electoral Assistance Unit sent a "Needs Assessment Team" to South Africa.
The President of the General Assembly announced the repeal of the oil embargo against South Africa in view of the installation of the TEC.

1993 16 December     The Secretary-General appointed Lakhdar Brahimi (Algeria) as his Special Representative for South Africa.


1993 20 December    
The General Assembly terminated the mandate of the Intergovernmental Group to Monitor the Supply and Shipping of Oil and Petroleum Products.


1994 10 January    
The Secretary-General submitted a report to the Security Council with recommendations for the observation of elections in South Africa.


1994 14 February    
The Security Council unanimously approved the recommendations of the Secretary-General.

1994 27 April    
South Africa's interim constitution entered into force and the new flag was raised.

United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali congratulated South Africa on the occasion of the country's first democratic elections. He expressed his pleasure at the conduct of the voting, in particular the performance of the voters, the IEC and the UNOMSA.
South Africa's new six colour flag was unfurled for the first time at the United Nations Headquarters.


1994 3 May    
South Africa resumed its full membership of the World Health Organisation (WHO).

1994 4 May    
In a statement congratulating ANC President Nelson Mandela on his election victory, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) invited South Africa to rejoin the organisation.


1994 6 May    
Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali applauded the election process in South Africa as a peaceful expression of the people's aspiration to a better future. Noting the more than 40 years of United Nations involvement in the world campaign against apartheid, he congratulated all those who worked for the peaceful transition from apartheid to a new, democratic, non-racial and united South Africa. He pledged continued United Nations commitment to South Africa.

1994 24 May    
President Nelson Mandela, in his State of the Nation Address to Parliament, announced that South Africa would subscribe to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and acceded to human rights conventions of the United Nations.

1994 25 May    
The Security Council adopted a resolution lifting its 1977 Arms Embargo and other restrictive measures against South Africa, thus removing the remaining United Nations sanctions against South Africa. [Resolution 919(1994)]

1994 6 June - 10 June    
Mission of the Special Committee against Apartheid to South Africa.


1994 14 June    
Special Committee against Apartheid adopted its final report to the General Assembly and the Security Council.

1994 16 June    
The Secretary-General issued his final report on the question of South Africa.

1994 23 June    
The General Assembly approved the credentials of the South African delegation, and removed the item on apartheid from its agenda.


1994 27 June    
The Security Council noted with great satisfaction the establishment of a united, non-racial and democratic Government of South Africa and removed the question of South Africa from its agenda.

 

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